Biology Study Guide for the Final Exam
#1 Compare an animal cell to an Island.
Describe how 5 organelles are similar to components of an
Island structurally or functionally.
Nucleus location in the center of the cell, appearance a big circle,
function contains DNA. The nucleus of the Island would be the mayor
and the city Council. The mayor in the city Council work in the
center of the Island together connecting all the different resources
that the island has to offer including police schools and fire
Cell membrane the location is out side of the cell its function is
to control what goes in and out of the cell. It is like the road
system on the Island. The road system on the Island allows only
certain cars and boats to get in. People simply cannot walk on to
Bainbridge Island they need a boat or a car.
Vacuole is located inside the cytoplasm it looks like a circle with
smaller circles attached to it, its function is to store water
pigments and nutrients. The vacuole celled part is like the islands
water towers and buildings. The water towers and buildings store
water and nutrients for us to use in the future.
Endoplasmic reticulum ER is a network of membranous tubules and sacs
the rough endoplasmic reticulum function is proteins synthesis, the
smoothed endoplasmic reticulum functions as lipid synthesis,
carbohydrate metabolism, detoxification. On Bainbridge Island
proteins is made by Starbucks and McDonald's and Subway for the
rough and applies the reticulum and for the smooth endoplasmic
reticulum Bainbridge Island detoxifies drugs and poisons at the
doctors office downtown.
The cytoskeleton is that that work of fibers throughout cytoplasm
they are thick straight hollow tubes and function to shape and
support the cell, they provide tracks for organelles, they separate
chromosomes during cell division. On Bainbridge Island the
cytoskeleton is Comcast cable and the Internet. Comcast cable has
hollow tubes throughout the island that provide us with Internet
support and cable television that shapes and supports our
entertainment and or education.
Ribosome is the smallest organelle, in cytosol it makes the proteins
for the cell. It is bound and attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
and it makes proteins for export. On Bainbridge Island the Ribosome
would be the people on Bainbridge Island that work elsewhere they
are made of protein and ready for export to help other parts of
Washington state function.
#2 Compare and contrast plant and animal cells.
What parts are different? How are those different parts functionally significant?
What are three of the key structures that they have in common?
parts of plant cells- plant cells have large central vacuoles. Plant
cells also have chloroplasts in animal cells do not have
significance of the different parts. Plant cells store water
pigments ions and other materials in their vacuoles. Animal cells
have lysosomes to break down excess materials. Plants are immobile
so they are able to increase in size without decreasing their
survival chances. Animals need to stay mobile define their food
avoid predators and seek a mate. Plants use chloroplast to convert
the sun's rays into energy. In cytokinesis in plant cells a new cell
wall forms and in animal cells a cleavage furrow forms.
structures plant and animal cells have in common. Both plant
and animal cells have mitochondria. All cells need to produce a TP
as her source of energy for cellular processes and reactions. They
both have nucleus’s, ribosome, endoplasmic reticulum in common.
#3 Briefly describe the structure of cell membranes.
Explain three ways that materials may cross the selectivelypermeable membrane.
structure of cell membranes the cell membrane is located on the
outside of the cell. Its function is to control what goes in and out
of the cell. There are selectively permeable cell membranes that
allow only certain materials to pass through. Selectively permeable
membranes surround cell parts example vacuoles have tonal plastics.
Small nonpolar molecules can pass through the membrane relatively
easily example 02. Large polar and charged molecules cannot pass
easily example starch H. Passive transport means transport without
an input of energy.
ways materials may cross the selectively permeable membrane include
one molecules move in and out of the cell down there concentration
gradient the difference between the concentration of a particular
molecule in one area and its concentration in and it adjacent area.
The second way is diffusion the net passive movement of molecules
from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower
concentration. I high rate of diffusion of hers with high
temperatures and small molecules. Osmosis is a special case of
diffusion the diffusion of water. Water moves from an area of low
salute to an area of high salute. The third way is a facilitated
diffusion use of integral or carrier proteins for diffusion. Carries
specific molecules into and out of the cell. Some proteins channels
are always open and some open and close in response to environmental
conditions examples are glucose into the red blood cells.
#4 Describe the Osmosis Lab.
What did you do? What did your data show? Why did some potatoes gain weight and others lose weight?
set up was use of Cork borer to create three approximately equal
size potato course. Way the potatoes together and record their mass
in grams. Place the potatoes in a labeled beaker with 100 mL of
water. Place the beaker in a tray on the front table. Repeat steps
one through 1-4 .2 M
sucrose, .4 M sucrose, .6 M sucrose, .8 M sucrose, and 1.0 M
sucrose. Osmosis is the diffusion of water through some I permeable
membranes. You would expect the mass of the potato to increase in
any kind of fluid but when you add sucrose and higher and higher
concentrations to the water the potato actually lost mass and
weight. The more sucrose you put in the more weight the potato lost.
If the potato was simply in water it gained mass and weight but when
you added sucrose it started to lose weight..
#5 Compare and contrast active transport, facilitated diffusion, and osmosis
Be sure to give a specific example of each method of material transport in your
Active Transport uses ATP to pump
molecules AGAINST/UP the concentration gradient. Transport
occurs from a low concentration of solute to high
concentration of solute. Requires cellular energy.
Movement of molecules DOWN the
concentration gradient. It goes from high to low
concentration, in order to maintain equilibrium in the cells.
Does not require cellular energy.
membrane/sodium-potassium pump & exocytosis
Diffusion, facilitated diffusion,
of Particles Transported
proteins, ions, large cells, complex
Anything soluble (meaning able to
dissolve) in lipids, small monosaccharides, water, oxygen,
carbon dioxide, sex hormones, etc.
sodium/potassium pump, secretion of a substance into the
bloodstream (process is opposite of phagocytosis &
diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated
In eukaryotic cells, amino acids,
sugars and lipids need to enter the cell by protein pumps,
which require active transport.These items either cannot
diffuse or diffuse too slowly for survival.
It maintains equilibrium in the
cell. Wastes (carbon dioxide, water, etc.) diffuse out and are
excreted; nutrients and oxygen diffuse in to be used by the
Transports molecules through the
cell membrane against the concentration gradient so more of
the substance is inside the cell (i.e. a nutrient) or outside
the cell (i.e. a waste) than normal. Disrupts equilibrium
established by diffusion.
Maintains dynamic equilibrium of
water, gases, nutrients, wastes, etc. between cells and
extracellular fluid; allows for small nutrients and gases to
enter/exit. No NET diffusion/osmosis after equilibrium is
diffusion Facilitated diffusion (also
known as facilitated transport or passive-mediated
transport) is the process of spontaneous passive transport (as opposed to active transport) of molecules or ions across a biological membrane via specific transmembrane
integral proteins. Being passive,
facilitated transport does not involve the use of chemical energy;
rather, molecules and ions move down their concentration gradient.
Facilitated diffusion is not a form of diffusion, however it is a transport process in
which molecules or ions which would otherwise cross the membrane
with great difficulty exploit transmembrane protein channels to help
them cross this membrane.
transport proteins for substances to move through. But, in
facilitated diffusion use of interval or carrier proteins for
diffusion, carries specific molecules into and out of the cell, some
proteins channels are always open and some open and close in
response to environmental conditions. The direction of the movement
is still from areas of high concentration to low concentration and
therefore no energy needs to be added to the system. In active
transport, molecules can be moved against the concentration gradient
with the addition of energy to the system the movement of a
substance up a concentration gradient through a selectively
permeable membrane using ATP to drive the process. Diffusion in
facilitated diffusion move substances down a concentration gradient
and does not require the use of a ATP..
Examples of facilitated diffusion
include glucose into red blood cells. Some proteins channels are
always open and some open and close in response to environmental
Examples of Osmosis. Reabsorption of
water by the proximal and distal convoluted to bowls of nephron.
Reabsorption of tissue fluid into the
venule ends of the blood capillaries. Osmosis is a special
case of diffusion including diffusion of water water moves from an
area of low salute to an area of high salute or put another way from
a hyposmotic to a hyperosmotic solution.
Examples of active transport
reabsorption of glucose, amino acids and solves by the proximal
convoluted tubule of the nephron in the kidney and sodium and
potassium pump and cell membranes especially in nerve cells.
#6 What is the cell cycle?
Describe the phases of the cell cycle in a plant cell. You may include labeled
diagrams in your answer.
Mitosis itself is
composed of four phases:
prophase, in which chromosomes are condensed, homologous
chromosomes are paired together, and the spindle apparatus made of
metaphase, in which the paired chromosomes are lined up across the
of the cell on the metaphase plate
anaphase, in which the homologous chromosomes are pulled to
separate poles in the dividing cell by the attached spindle
telophase, in which the daughter cell chromosomes are collected
together at the poles.
Mitosis is followed
by cytokinesis, or the process by which the two daughter cells are
Because plant cells have cell walls,
the division of one cell into two daughter cells requires the
formation of a cell plate to complete cytokinesis. This cell plate
grows outward between the two new nuclei. Once the cell plate
reaches the walls of the dividing cell, it forms the cell wall that
separates the two new cells.
#7 Beginning with the overall reaction for photosynthesis, describe the role of each
reactant in photosynthesis, during which step it is “used,” and how each product is
I. Capturing the Energy of Life
organisms require energy
organisms (autotrophs) obtain energy directly
from the sun and store it in organic compounds (glucose)
during a process called photosynthesis
6H2O + energy --> 6O2 +
Energy for Life Processes
is the ability
to do work
for a cell includes growth & repair, active transport
across cell membranes, reproduction, synthesis of cellular products,
is the ability to change or move matter against other forces (W
= F x D)
or producers convert sunlight, CO2, and H2O
into glucose (their food)
algae, and blue-green bacteria, some prokaryotes,
are producers or autotrophs
Only 10% of
the Earth’s 40 million species are autotrophs
autotrophs use inorganic compounds instead of
sunlight to make food; process known aschemosynthesis
food for themselves and heterotrophs or consumers that cannot make food for
include animals, fungi, & some bacteria,
synthesis the process by which autotrophs convert sunlight to a
usable forms of energy. Real reaction 6 CO2 +12 H2O plus light
equals C6H12O6 +6 O2+6 H2O
reaction for light plus H2O equals oxygen gas and hydrogen ions H+
and electrons (-)
role of each reactant in photosynthesis the Calvin cycle uses ATP
and an ADP H made in the light dependent reactions as energy sources
to make sugars from the CEO to the plant incorporates into the
leaves through the Stomata
the role of each reactant in photosynthesis photosynthesis reactants
include light, carbon dioxide and water H2O. Cellular respiration
reactants include glucose and 02. Products for each reaction
photosynthesis products are glucose and 02. Cellular respiration
products are ATP, carbon dioxide and H2.
step is it used? The ATP is being used during the Calvin cycle. The
Calvin cycle occurs in the stroma of our class the Calvin cycle uses
ATP and in NADPH made in the light dependent reactions as energy
sources to make sugars from the CO2 the plant incorporates into the
leaves and through the Stomata
is each product formed?
In the light reactions stage,
photosystem II starts off with electrons getting hit with light
energy, which makes them “excited” then they go through the
electron transport chain which pushes H+ from low to high
concentration. The pressure helps the H+ go through ATPsynthase
enzyme and ATP is made. Then in photosystem I, the electrons get hit
with even more light energy, and get captured by an electron carrier
NADP+. It gets reduced and is NADPH. You’re now left with oxygen.
NADPH and ATP go onto the Calvin cycle so that it can make G3P, the
sugar that produces glucose.
What products are formed by
photosynthesis water glucose and oxygen
#8 Compare and contrast chloroplasts and mitochondria structurally and functionally.
You may include labeled diagrams in your answer.
have its own DNA
enclosed by two membranes
oxygen (O2) and carbon
dioxide (CO2) are involved in its processes
have fluids inside of it
usually found in plants and
converts solar/light energy into
chemical energy (sugar)
process is photosynthesis: composed of Light Reactions and Calvin
has three compartments(parts): thylakoids (traps
sunlight), granum (pl: grana;
stacks of thylakoids), stroma (fluid inside the outer membrane, which interacts with
the cytoplasm. It surrounds the granum and thylakoids
found in almost all cells
converts chemical energy (sugar)
into another form of chemical energy (ATP), which is simpler and
could be used by the cell
process is cellular
respiration: composed of Glycolysis, ETC,
has two compartments. Crista (pl:cristae)
is the compartment formed by the inner and outer membrane of the
mitochondria; it is the layer of folds in the mitochondria and is
studded with proteins. The other compartment is calledmatrix; it is the fluid inside the
#9 Beginning with the overall reaction for cellular respiration, describe the role of each
reactant in respiration, during which step it is “used’” and how each product is formed.
rest duration where the reaction happens it occurs in the
mitochondria. Organisms that performed the reaction in cellular
respiration occurs in all organisms. React once for each reaction
include glucose and of to. Products for each reaction are ATP,
carbon dioxide and H20. Overall reactions cellular respiration C6H
12 O6 +602 equals 6C02 plus 6H20 plus ATP
the set of the metabolic reactions
and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to
energy fromnutrients into adenosine
and then release waste products. The
reactions involved in respiration are catabolic
reactions, which break large molecules into smaller ones,
releasing energy in the process as weak so-called
"high-energy" bonds are replaced by stronger bonds in the
products. Respiration is one of the key ways a cell gains useful
energy to fuel cellular activity. Cellular respiration is considered
an exothermic redox
reaction. The overall reaction is broken into many
smaller ones when it occurs in the body, most of which are redox
reactions themselves. Although technically, cellular respiration is
reaction, it clearly does not resemble one when it occurs
in a living cell. This difference is because it occurs in many
separate steps. While the overall reaction is a combustion reaction,
no single reaction that comprises it is a combustion reaction.
Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and
plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and a commonoxidizing agent (electron acceptor) is molecular oxygen (O2).
The energy stored in ATP (its third phosphate group is weakly bonded
to the rest of the molecule and is cheaply broken allowing stronger
bonds to form, thereby transferring energy for use by the cell) can
then be used to drive processes requiring energy, kmincluding biosynthesis, locomotion or
#10 Why does it make sense thematically for us to study chemistry before the cell unit?
Give at least three specific examples of when knowledge of chemistry was
helpful in understanding cellular concepts in this current unit.
we get a basic idea on how a cell is formed so we can easily
understand the next unit cells are made of DNA, sugars, proteins
An understanding of biology requires
a little knowledge of chemistry, and an understanding of chemistry
requires a little knowledge of mathematics—that's where we draw
the line. It is important to know aspects of chemistry to make
biology come alive, but it is not important to go into detailed
mathematical applications to understand the principles of
biology—so we won't!
Modern biology overlaps with
chemistry in explaining the structure and function of all cellular
processes at the molecular level. Several important chemical
concepts are treated in detail in the sections that follow. When
applied in later sections, these chemical concepts will allow you to
construct greater meaning of the more complex biological principles.
DNA, abbreviation of deoxyribonucleic acid, organic chemical of
complex molecular structure that is found in all prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cells and in many viruses. DNA codes genetic information
for the transmission of inherited traits.
Sugar is the generalized name for a class of
chemically-related sweet-flavored substances, most of which are used
as food. They arecarbohydrates,
composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Proteins are large biological
molecules, or macromolecules,
consisting of one or more chains of amino
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