Scientific Breakthroughs

Ptolemaic System & Galileo

& Rationalism






I.     Scientific breakthroughs- universe and the human body

A.  The Ptolemaic System

1.    An astronomer, system is geocentric -Earth at the center of the universe.

2.    Universe a series of spheres

3.    Earth was motionless.

4.    Humans At the center and God on the outside.

B.  Nicholas Copernicus and Kepler

1.    Copernicus universe heliocentric or centered around the sun is the center of the universe with the planets revolving around it.

2.    Johanne Kepler used astronomical data to confirm the Sun was the center of the universe

3.    He proved planets orbit around the sun in an egg shaped not circular

C.  Galileo's discoveries

1.    With a telescope he proved mountains on moon,  moons around Jupiter and sunspots.

2.    Proved stars are not orbs of light but solid material

3.    Galileo trouble with Catholic Church because humans not at the center of the universe and God was no longer in a specific place.

D.  Isaac Newton

1.    Tied together the ideas of first 3 guys.

2.    Wrote the Principia defined three laws of motion.

3.    Universal law of gravitation proved every object is attracted by force called gravity and explained all the motion in the universe.

II.   Philosophy and Reason, reason is the chief source of knowledge.

A.  Descartes and rationalism

1.    René Descartes wrote about doubt and uncertainty

2.    His philosophy was: one fact seemed beyond doubt his own existence his book called Discourse on Method.

3.    He wrote “I think therefore I am” and that mind and matter were completely separate. Matter wasn’t alive and could be investigated by reason.






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