Biology Study Guide for the Final Exam






#1  Compare an animal cell to an Island.

Describe how 5 organelles are similar to components of an Island structurally or functionally.

5 Organelles:

1. Nucleus location in the center of the cell, appearance a big circle, function contains DNA. The nucleus of the Island would be the mayor and the city Council. The mayor in the city Council work in the center of the Island together connecting all the different resources that the island has to offer including police schools and fire department.


2. Cell membrane the location is out side of the cell its function is to control what goes in and out of the cell. It is like the road system on the Island. The road system on the Island allows only certain cars and boats to get in. People simply cannot walk on to Bainbridge Island they need a boat or a car.


3. Vacuole is located inside the cytoplasm it looks like a circle with smaller circles attached to it, its function is to store water pigments and nutrients. The vacuole celled part is like the islands water towers and buildings. The water towers and buildings store water and nutrients for us to use in the future.


4. Endoplasmic reticulum ER is a network of membranous tubules and sacs the rough endoplasmic reticulum function is proteins synthesis, the smoothed endoplasmic reticulum functions as lipid synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, detoxification. On Bainbridge Island proteins is made by Starbucks and McDonald's and Subway for the rough and applies the reticulum and for the smooth endoplasmic reticulum Bainbridge Island detoxifies drugs and poisons at the doctors office downtown.


5. The cytoskeleton is that that work of fibers throughout cytoplasm they are thick straight hollow tubes and function to shape and support the cell, they provide tracks for organelles, they separate chromosomes during cell division. On Bainbridge Island the cytoskeleton is Comcast cable and the Internet. Comcast cable has hollow tubes throughout the island that provide us with Internet support and cable television that shapes and supports our entertainment and or education.


6. Ribosome is the smallest organelle, in cytosol it makes the proteins for the cell. It is bound and attached to the endoplasmic reticulum and it makes proteins for export. On Bainbridge Island the Ribosome would be the people on Bainbridge Island that work elsewhere they are made of protein and ready for export to help other parts of Washington state function.


#2  Compare and contrast plant and animal cells.  

What parts are different?  How are those different parts functionally significant?

What are three of the key structures that they have in common?


Different parts of plant cells- plant cells have large central vacuoles. Plant cells also have chloroplasts in animal cells do not have chloroplasts.

Functional significance of the different parts. Plant cells store water pigments ions and other materials in their vacuoles. Animal cells have lysosomes to break down excess materials. Plants are immobile so they are able to increase in size without decreasing their survival chances. Animals need to stay mobile define their food avoid predators and seek a mate. Plants use chloroplast to convert the sun's rays into energy. In cytokinesis in plant cells a new cell wall forms and in animal cells a cleavage furrow forms.


Key  structures plant and animal cells have in common. Both plant and animal cells have mitochondria. All cells need to produce a TP as her source of energy for cellular processes and reactions. They both have nucleus’s, ribosome, endoplasmic reticulum in common.


#3  Briefly describe the structure of cell membranes.

Explain three ways that materials may cross the selectively­permeable membrane.


The structure of cell membranes the cell membrane is located on the outside of the cell. Its function is to control what goes in and out of the cell. There are selectively permeable cell membranes that allow only certain materials to pass through. Selectively permeable membranes surround cell parts example vacuoles have tonal plastics. Small nonpolar molecules can pass through the membrane relatively easily example 02. Large polar and charged molecules cannot pass easily example starch H. Passive transport means transport without an input of energy.

Three ways materials may cross the selectively permeable membrane include one molecules move in and out of the cell down there concentration gradient the difference between the concentration of a particular molecule in one area and its concentration in and it adjacent area. The second way is diffusion the net passive movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. I high rate of diffusion of hers with high temperatures and small molecules. Osmosis is a special case of diffusion the diffusion of water. Water moves from an area of low salute to an area of high salute. The third way is a facilitated diffusion use of integral or carrier proteins for diffusion. Carries specific molecules into and out of the cell. Some proteins channels are always open and some open and close in response to environmental conditions examples are glucose into the red blood cells.


#4  Describe the Osmosis Lab.  

What did you do?  What did your data show?  Why did some potatoes gain weight and others lose weight?

The set up was use of Cork borer to create three approximately equal size potato course. Way the potatoes together and record their mass in grams. Place the potatoes in a labeled beaker with 100 mL of water. Place the beaker in a tray on the front table. Repeat steps one through 1-4  .2 M sucrose, .4 M sucrose, .6 M sucrose, .8 M sucrose, and 1.0 M sucrose. Osmosis is the diffusion of water through some I permeable membranes. You would expect the mass of the potato to increase in any kind of fluid but when you add sucrose and higher and higher concentrations to the water the potato actually lost mass and weight. The more sucrose you put in the more weight the potato lost. If the potato was simply in water it gained mass and weight but when you added sucrose it started to lose weight..

All  cells  have  membranes  that  are  selectively  permeable.  In  other  words,  they

allow  certain  things  in  and  certain  substances  are  not  allowed  to  enter  the

interior  of  the  cell.  The  process  by  which  water  crosses  membranes  from

regions  of  high  water  concentration  to  regions  of  low  water  concentration  is

called  Osmosis.  Osmosis  is  the  process  whereby  water  moves  across  a  cell

membrane  by  diffusion.  Diffusion  takes  place  when  the  molecules  of  a

substance  tend  to  move  from  areas  of  higher  concentration  to  areas  of

lower  concentration.  Cells  must  tightly  control  the  process  of  osmosis

otherwise  they  will  die.  Plants  with  too  little  water  will  wilt.  This  happens

when  water  moves  out  of  the  cells  by  osmosis.  Without  this  water  there  is

little  pressure  inside  the  cells  and  the  plant  can  no  longer  support  itself

against  the  pull  of  gravity.  )

#5  Compare and contrast active transport, facilitated diffusion, and osmosis

Be sure to give a specific example of each method of material transport in your 



Active Transport

Passive Transport


Active Transport uses ATP to pump molecules AGAINST/UP the concentration gradient. Transport occurs from a low concentration of solute to high concentration of solute. Requires cellular energy.

Movement of molecules DOWN the concentration gradient. It goes from high to low concentration, in order to maintain equilibrium in the cells. Does not require cellular energy.

Types of Transport

Endocytosis, cell membrane/sodium-potassium pump & exocytosis

Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and osmosis.

Types of Particles Transported

proteins, ions, large cells, complex sugars.

Anything soluble (meaning able to dissolve) in lipids, small monosaccharides, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, sex hormones, etc.


phagocytosis, pinocytosis, sodium/potassium pump, secretion of a substance into the bloodstream (process is opposite of phagocytosis & pinocytosis)

diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion.


In eukaryotic cells, amino acids, sugars and lipids need to enter the cell by protein pumps, which require active transport.These items either cannot diffuse or diffuse too slowly for survival.

It maintains equilibrium in the cell. Wastes (carbon dioxide, water, etc.) diffuse out and are excreted; nutrients and oxygen diffuse in to be used by the cell.


Transports molecules through the cell membrane against the concentration gradient so more of the substance is inside the cell (i.e. a nutrient) or outside the cell (i.e. a waste) than normal. Disrupts equilibrium established by diffusion.

Maintains dynamic equilibrium of water, gases, nutrients, wastes, etc. between cells and extracellular fluid; allows for small nutrients and gases to enter/exit. No NET diffusion/osmosis after equilibrium is established


Facilitated diffusion Facilitated diffusion (also known as facilitated transport or passive-mediated transport) is the process of spontaneous passive transport (as opposed to active transport) of molecules or ions across a biological membrane via specific transmembrane integral proteins.[1] Being passive, facilitated transport does not involve the use of chemical energy; rather, molecules and ions move down their concentration gradient. Facilitated diffusion is not a form of diffusion, however it is a transport process in which molecules or ions which would otherwise cross the membrane with great difficulty exploit transmembrane protein channels to help them cross this membrane.



Both require transport proteins for substances to move through. But, in facilitated diffusion use of interval or carrier proteins for diffusion, carries specific molecules into and out of the cell, some proteins channels are always open and some open and close in response to environmental conditions. The direction of the movement is still from areas of high concentration to low concentration and therefore no energy needs to be added to the system. In active transport, molecules can be moved against the concentration gradient with the addition of energy to the system the movement of a substance up a concentration gradient through a selectively permeable membrane using ATP to drive the process. Diffusion in facilitated diffusion move substances down a concentration gradient and does not require the use of a ATP..


Examples of facilitated diffusion include glucose into red blood cells. Some proteins channels are always open and some open and close in response to environmental conditions.


Examples of Osmosis. Reabsorption of water by the proximal and distal convoluted to bowls of nephron. Reabsorption of tissue fluid into the  venule ends of the blood capillaries. Osmosis is a special case of diffusion including diffusion of water water moves from an area of low salute to an area of high salute or put another way from a hyposmotic to a hyperosmotic solution.


Examples of active transport reabsorption of glucose, amino acids and solves by the proximal convoluted tubule of the nephron in the kidney and sodium and potassium pump and cell membranes especially in nerve cells.





#6  What is the cell cycle?

Describe the phases of the cell cycle in a plant cell.  You may include labeled 

diagrams in your answer.


Mitosis itself is composed of four phases: 

1.           prophase, in which chromosomes are condensed, homologous chromosomes are paired together, and the spindle apparatus made of microtubules forms

2.           metaphase, in which the paired chromosomes are lined up across the center of the cell on the metaphase plate

3.           anaphase, in which the homologous chromosomes are pulled to separate poles in the dividing cell by the attached spindle apparatus; and

4.           telophase, in which the daughter cell chromosomes are collected together at the poles.

Mitosis is followed by cytokinesis, or the process by which the two daughter cells are physically separated. 

Because plant cells have cell walls, the division of one cell into two daughter cells requires the formation of a cell plate to complete cytokinesis. This cell plate grows outward between the two new nuclei. Once the cell plate reaches the walls of the dividing cell, it forms the cell wall that separates the two new cells.

























#7  Beginning with the overall reaction for photosynthesis, describe the role of each 

reactant in photosynthesis, during which step it is “used,” and how each product is 



I. Capturing the Energy of Life

A.   All organisms require energy

B.   Some organisms (autotrophs) obtain energy directly from the sun and store it in organic compounds (glucose) during a process called photosynthesis

6CO2 + 6H2O + energy -->  6O2 + C6H12O6

II. Energy for Life Processes

A.   Energy is the ability to do work

B.   Work for a cell includes growth & repair, active transport across cell membranes, reproduction, synthesis of cellular products, etc.

C.   Work is the ability to change or move matter against other forces (W = F x D)

D.   Autotrophs or producers convert sunlight, CO2, and H2O into glucose (their food)

E.   Plants, algae, and blue-green bacteria, some prokaryotes, are producers or autotrophs

F.    Only 10% of the Earth’s 40 million species are autotrophs

G.  Other autotrophs use inorganic compounds instead of sunlight to make food; process known aschemosynthesis

H.   Producers make food for themselves and heterotrophs or consumers that cannot make food for themselves

I.      Heterotrophs include animals, fungi, & some bacteria, & protists

Photo synthesis the process by which autotrophs convert sunlight to a usable forms of energy. Real reaction 6 CO2 +12 H2O plus light equals C6H12O6 +6 O2+6 H2O


Overall reaction for light plus H2O equals oxygen gas and hydrogen ions H+ and electrons (-)


The role of each reactant in photosynthesis the Calvin cycle uses ATP and an ADP H made in the light dependent reactions as energy sources to make sugars from the CEO to the plant incorporates into the leaves through the Stomata


Describe the role of each reactant in photosynthesis photosynthesis reactants include light, carbon dioxide and water H2O. Cellular respiration reactants include glucose and 02. Products for each reaction photosynthesis products are glucose and 02. Cellular respiration products are ATP, carbon dioxide and H2.


Which step is it used? The ATP is being used during the Calvin cycle. The Calvin cycle occurs in the stroma of our class the Calvin cycle uses ATP and in NADPH made in the light dependent reactions as energy sources to make sugars from the CO2 the plant incorporates into the leaves and through the Stomata


How is each product formed?

In the light reactions stage, photosystem II starts off with electrons getting hit with light energy, which makes them “excited” then they go through the electron transport chain which pushes H+ from low to high concentration. The pressure helps the H+ go through ATPsynthase enzyme and ATP is made. Then in photosystem I, the electrons get hit with even more light energy, and get captured by an electron carrier NADP+. It gets reduced and is NADPH. You’re now left with oxygen. NADPH and ATP go onto the Calvin cycle so that it can make G3P, the sugar that produces glucose.


What products are formed by photosynthesis water glucose and oxygen


#8  Compare and contrast chloroplasts and mitochondria structurally and functionally.

You may include labeled diagrams in your answer.




·         convert energy

·         have its own DNA

·         enclosed by two membranes

·         oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are involved in its processes

·         have fluids inside of it



·         plural: chloroplasts

·         usually found in plants and unicellular organisms

·         converts solar/light energy into chemical energy (sugar)

·         process is photosynthesis: composed of Light Reactions and Calvin Benson Cycle

·         has three compartments(parts): thylakoids (traps sunlight), granum (pl: grana; stacks of thylakoids), stroma (fluid inside the outer membrane, which interacts with the cytoplasm. It surrounds the granum and thylakoids


·         plural: mitochondria

·         found in almost all cells

·         converts chemical energy (sugar) into another form of chemical energy (ATP), which is simpler and could be used by the cell

·         process is cellular respiration: composed of Glycolysis, ETC, and Oxidative Phosphorylation

·         has two compartments. Crista (pl:cristae) is the compartment formed by the inner and outer membrane of the mitochondria; it is the layer of folds in the mitochondria and is studded with proteins. The other compartment is calledmatrix; it is the fluid inside the foldings (cristae).


#9  Beginning with the overall reaction for cellular respiration, describe the role of each 

reactant in respiration, during which step it is “used’” and how each product is formed.


Cellular rest duration where the reaction happens it occurs in the mitochondria. Organisms that performed the reaction in cellular respiration occurs in all organisms. React once for each reaction include glucose and of to. Products for each reaction are ATP, carbon dioxide and H20. Overall reactions cellular respiration C6H 12 O6 +602 equals 6C02 plus 6H20 plus ATP


Cellular respiration is the set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy fromnutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.[1] The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions, which break large molecules into smaller ones, releasing energy in the process as weak so-called "high-energy" bonds are replaced by stronger bonds in the products. Respiration is one of the key ways a cell gains useful energy to fuel cellular activity. Cellular respiration is considered an exothermic redox reaction. The overall reaction is broken into many smaller ones when it occurs in the body, most of which are redox reactions themselves. Although technically, cellular respiration is a combustion reaction, it clearly does not resemble one when it occurs in a living cell. This difference is because it occurs in many separate steps. While the overall reaction is a combustion reaction, no single reaction that comprises it is a combustion reaction.

Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and a commonoxidizing agent (electron acceptor) is molecular oxygen (O2). The energy stored in ATP (its third phosphate group is weakly bonded to the rest of the molecule and is cheaply broken allowing stronger bonds to form, thereby transferring energy for use by the cell) can then be used to drive processes requiring energy, kmincluding biosynthesis, locomotion or transportation of


#10  Why does it make sense thematically for us to study chemistry before the cell unit?

Give at least three specific examples of when knowledge of chemistry was 

helpful in understanding cellular concepts in this current unit.



so we get a basic idea on how a cell is formed so we can easily understand the next unit cells are made of DNA, sugars, proteins etc.

An understanding of biology requires a little knowledge of chemistry, and an understanding of chemistry requires a little knowledge of mathematics—that's where we draw the line. It is important to know aspects of chemistry to make biology come alive, but it is not important to go into detailed mathematical applications to understand the principles of biology—so we won't!

Modern biology overlaps with chemistry in explaining the structure and function of all cellular processes at the molecular level. Several important chemical concepts are treated in detail in the sections that follow. When applied in later sections, these chemical concepts will allow you to construct greater meaning of the more complex biological principles.

DNA, abbreviation of deoxyribonucleic acid,  organic chemical of complex molecular structure that is found in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and in many viruses. DNA codes genetic information for the transmission of inherited traits.

Sugar is the generalized name for a class of chemically-related sweet-flavored substances, most of which are used as food. They arecarbohydrates, composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

Proteins  are large biological molecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more chains of amino acid residues


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