DNA, Genetics, and Protein Synthesis Review Questions
DNA and RNA
- What are the three parts of a DNA nucleotide?
, phosphate group , base
- Briefly describe DNA replication.
Double helix unwinds and unzips with the help of helicase. Each
single strand serves as a template. Complementary strand made
from free-floating nucleotides. Because parent DNA has two
strands to new identical DNA molecules are formed.
- What are the three differences between DNA and RNA?
Number of strands DNA to RNA one, sugars deoxyribose and ribose,
bases DNA a CTG and RNA ACUG
4. What is the mRNA transcript if the DNA is TACTCG?
5. What enzyme replicates DNA? Ameno
acids What enzyme creates premRNA?
What is another term for haploid sex cells?
haploid sex cell
or gamete is a cell which contains one complete set of
male gamete is a haploid cell and is used in sexual reproduction.
What is crossingover? When does it occur and what is its significance?
It is when genes are swapped it incurs in meiosis one. It adds to
the genetic variety of the gamete
What is random assortment? When does it occur and what is its significance?
Random assortment is meiosis distributes a random mixture of mother
and father chromosomes to each gamete it adds to the genetic
variety. It occurs in meiosis.
How many cells are created by the end of Meiosis II?
Cells divide twice during meiosis 1-2n cell turns into 4n cells.
5. What is a homologous pair?
When 2 homologous chromosomes partnered together
1. Give an example of a genotype and a phenotype.
A genotype is the actual genetic makeup of the organism example Bb
and a phenotype is the form or trait that is observed example
2. What is another name for a hybrid?
3. What is the term to describe a trait that shows in a hybrid?
4. Briefly describe a gene.
Located on chromosomes controls the traits of an organism
- How do incomplete and codominance differ?
neither allele is dominant example red white flowers pink offspring.
both alleles are dominant example red and white flowers red and
white striped offspring.
1. Aa x Aa‡ ?
2. BbCc x BBCC‡ ?
3. What must be true about the parents of a colorblind female?
That one of her parents carry the colorblind gene
4. If a baby has type O blood, can the baby’s father have type AB blood?yes
5. What must be true about the genotypes of two healthy parents that have a sicklecell baby?
They carry the sickle-cell gene
1. What causes DNA to move through the gel?
It uses electricity to separate molecules and a poor spongelike
matrix to move to the job
2. What are the enzymes called that cut DNA at a specific site?
The restriction map is the map of restriction enzyme sites that can
be generated by cutting pieces of DNA with different combinations of
3. Do smaller or larger fragments move faster through the gel?
Smaller fragments move faster and further
4. Briefly describe how a dyed gel is read.
The purpose of the gel makes it easier to read the samples to
visually track the DNA migration and alliance.
5. What is a DNA standard?
DNA ladder used in gel electrophoresis. The ladder is a collection
of DNA fragments of known size (e.g. 100, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000,
10000 base pairs) so that if it is loaded beside the samples, it can
offer a 'ruler' that can be used to determine the size of the
fragments in the samples.
1. What are the two steps of protein synthesis and where does each occur?
The two main steps in protein syntheis are transcription and translation. In transcription,
the enzyme RNA Polymerase uses a DNA strand as a template to make a transcript of
messenger RNA. This transcript is then translated into
protein by the ribosome.
2. Describe the role of the ribosome in protein synthesis.
Ribosomes are the place where Protein Synthesis takes place.
In the Ribosome, the mRNA, tRNA, and Amino Acids meet to form a
3. How do a codon and an anticodon differ?
A codon is a sequence of three nucleotides which combined form a
unit of genetic code in a RNA or DNA molecule. An anticodon is a
sequence of three nucleotides which form a unit of genetic code in a
transfer RNA molecule, equivalent to a complementary codon in
4. How do mRNA and tRNA differ in structure and function?
tRNA is transfer RNA. mRNA is messenger RNA. Both are made up of
nucleotides, but I believe while mRNA is made from those containing
the bases adenine, cytosine, guanine & uracil, tRNA has an
additional one by the name of 'inosine'. So it looks like I've
answered (b) first... As
for location within the cell...well, your mRNA is transcribed from
your DNA, so obviously it would have been in the nucleus. Then it
would be transported out into the cytoplasm and sit around for
ribosomes to come or be degraded by enzymes. On the other hand, tRNA
function in transferring amino acids to ribosomes, so they'd be
found in the cytoplasm.
5. In RNA processing, what is added to each end of the mRNA and what purposes do they serve?
is composed of three parts: (1) a nitrogenous base known as ... Themessenger
RNA (mRNA) serves as
an intermediate between DNA and protein. ...needs
to be processed before they
can serve as
a blueprint for a protein. ... the
removal of introns, a poly-A sequence is added to
the 3' end of
Presentations in PowerPoint format
Educational Games for Kids