Revolutions in Italy, 

Central Europe 

Germany and France

Essay Paper Ideas & Notes





.Revolutions in France Germany central Europe and Italy. Causes/desires of the people, events, outcomes



severe economic problems began in 1846 brought hardship to the lower middle class workers and hazards. Members of the middle class wanted the right to vote. The government refused to change. The monarchy was overthrown in 1848 radical Republicans set up a government they wanted the leaders to be elected. All adult males could vote. Set up national workshops for the unemployed. This used up all their money. They were forced to close the unemployment workshops and that made workers go into the streets for days of bloody fighting with government forces. Thousands were killed and thousands were put in French prisons in Algeria in northern Africa. A new constitution ratified November 4, 1848 set up a Republic called the second Republic. And the president serve for four years. Elections held December 1848 Napoleon Bonaparte elected new French ruler.


people heard of the 1848 Revolution in France. Congress of Vienna in 1850 recognized 38 independent German states called the German Confederation. Of these Austria and Prussia were the two greatest powers. 1848 German rulers promised constitutions, a freak press, jury trials and other liberal reforms. In May 1848 in all German Parliament called the Frankfurt assembly met to make a parliamentary government and limited monarchy it also allowed for direct election of deputies to the parliament. German unit of Tatian was not achieved because Frederick William V of Prussia refused to accept the crown.

Central Europe

the Austrian Empire was a multinational state a collection of different people including Germans checks Hungarians Romanians Poles Serbians Ukrainians and Italians. Only the German-speaking Hapsburg dynasty held the empire together. The Germans worldly a quarter of the population but they lead in governing Austrian Empire. March 1848 demonstrations erupted in major cities in Vienna revolutionary forces took control of the capital and demanded a liberal constitution. The government gave Hungary its own legislature in response. The checks also one of their own government in Bohemia. Austrian officials made concessions but were determined to take control back the empire. In June 1848 Austrian military forces crush the check revels in Prague. By the end of October 1848 the revels in Vienna lost. With the help of a Russian army the Hungarian revolutionaries were subdued in 1849 the revolutions in the Austrian Empire failed.


the Congress of Vienna set up nine states in Italy. The states included the Kingdom of Piedmont in the North the to Sicily's Naples and Sicily and the Poppel states which were all part of the Austrian Empire. In 1848 of revolt broke out against the Austrians in Lombardi in the knee shall. Revolutionaries took up arms they wanted to create liberal constitutions and unify Italy. By 1849 the Austrians had reestablished control over major cities throughout Europe in 1848 popular revolt started up evils that led to liberal constitutions and Liberal governments. Moderate liberals and radical revolutionaries were divided over the goals and so conservative rule was reestablished.


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