The Cold War US & 

Russia Essay Notes





The Cold War

 The USSR was justified in its actions and the US/West were to blame for tensions

American leaders were not willing to give up the power and prestige the US had gained throughout the world after World War II

in 1949 the United States and European allies to form the NATO or NATO

Russia believed because it freed Eastern Europe from the Nazis the Soviet Army was going to stay in the conquered areas they thought if these nations would be anti-Soviet if they were allowed free elections they believed they had the right to stay because they conquered the areas

the communist People's liberation Army and anti-Communist forces supported by Great Britain fought for control of Greece in 1946 Britain had economic problems and it withdrew its aid from Greece

the Truman doctrine sent aid to Greece to stop the spread of communism.

The Soviet unions solve the Marshall plan as an attempt by the United States to buy support of countries

Germany was divided into four areas three of which were run by the Allies Great Britain France and the United States and one was run by Russia the land that would eventually become East Germany.

The Soviets did not want a separate West German state so they blockaded West Berlin.

The United States started building up nuclear weapons

NATO was formed in April 1949 in an effort to stop communism from spreading

in 1959 Fidel Castro overthrew Cuban dictator and set up the Soviets supported totalitarian regime in Cuba

after the Bay of Pigs in Cuba United States had missiles in Turkey so who Russia put missiles in Cuba.

US/West were justified in their actions and the USSR was to blame for tensions

the United States feared the spread of communism in Europe

the Soviet government refused to give up control of Eastern Europe after World War II

in 1955 the Soviet Union and its European allies formed the Warsaw Pact

the US and Great Britain believe that liberated nations of Eastern Europe should freely determine their own governments

Harry Truman president of the US was alarmed by the British withdrawl in Greece and Turkey and the possibility of Soviet expansion into the Mediterranean so he asked for aid for Greece on March 12, 1947 it was a policy known as the Truman doctrine

the Soviet Union could not afford to help other countries like the United States could it tried in 1949 to respond to the Marshall plan by founding the Council for mutual economic assistance Comecon it was supposed to economically help Eastern European states but it largely failed because the Soviet Union could not provide much financial aid

 the Soviets did not want to German states so they blockaded West Berlin. The Soviets didn't allow food or supplies to the 2.5 million people in the zones so the American and British planes dropped supplies called the Berlin airlift and told the Soviets gave in and lifted the blockade in 1947

It's the Soviet Union exploded its first atomic bomb in 1949

Soviet Union started to build up nuclear weapons

Soviet Union builds the Berlin wall

Cuban missile crisis brings the Soviet Union and United States to the brink of nuclear war when the Soviets put nuclear missiles in Cuba

the Soviet Union back the Communists in North Vietnam when they invaded South Vietnam in the US backed South Vietnam but North Viet Phnom one

by the end of the Vietnam War a new era in American Soviet relations had begun to of March. Vietnam showed the limitations of American power.

After the Vietnam War America realized that there was not a single form of communism directed by Moscow and new nations in Southeast Asia managed to avoid communist governments.

Truman Doctrine president Harry S Truman of the US was alarmed by the British withdrawal in Greece and worried that the Soviet Union plan to expand into the Eastern Mediterranean Pres. Truman on March 12, 1947 asked for $400 million in aid for Greece and Turkey the Truman doctrine he declared meant a policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted control by armed minorities and outside pressures. He asked specifically for aid for Greece and Turkey but the Truman doctrine also stated that the US would provide aid to other countries threatened by communist expansion

Marshall Plan June 1947 the Marshall plan also known as the European recovery program was proposed by Gen. George Marshall the US Secretary of State. Marshall believed that communism was successful because countries had economic problems so to prevent the spread of communism the Marshall plan provided $13 billion to rebuild war-torn Europe. The Soviet Union and its European satellite states did not participate because the Soviets thought it was an attempt by the US to buy support. The Marshall plan guaranteed American loans in return for relinquishing by the European states of their economic and later their political independence.

Satellite states states that are politically and economically dependent on another for example the Soviet union had satellite states that were politically and pendant upon them

Policy of Containment in July 1947 George Keenan a US diplomat argued for a policy of containment to keep communism within its existing boundaries and prevent further Soviet aggressive moves. Containment became the United States policy.

The “two Germany’s” at the end of the war the Allied powers had divided Germany into four zones each occupied by one of the allies the United States, the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and France. The city of Berlin was located inside the Soviet zone and it was also divided into four zones. Foreign ministers of the four occupying powers tried to reach peace with Germany that had no success. By February 1948 Great Britain France and the United States are making plans to unify the three western sections of Germany and Berlin and create a West German government. The Soviets opposed the creation of a separate West German state. The Soviets tried to blockade West Berlin. They did not allow trucks trains or boats to enter the city's three western zones. Food and supplies could not get through to 2.5 million people. The Allied nations decided that all the people in Berlin could not starve to death so they began the Berlin airlift that would fly supplies in American and British airplanes to that area. 2.3 million tons of supplies were airlifted by American and British airplanes the Soviets who wanted to avoid war gave in and lifted the blockade in May 1949. In September 1949 the Federal Republic of Germany or West Germany was formally created. A separate East German state the German Democratic Republic was set up by the Soviets. East Berlin became its capital. Berlin was now divided into two parts a reminder of the division of East and West.

Arms Race the Soviet Union and the United States built up their armies and weapons. Nuclear weapons became increasingly destructive as both countries tried to build more and more deadly bombs. Both sides thought that nuclear weapons would prevent war. They believed if one nation attacked with nuclear weapons the other nation would still be able to respond.

NATO the United States and its European allies formed the north Atlantic Treaty organization or NATO in 1955 the nations included in NATO are the United States Canada Greenland France Italy Belgium United Kingdom and Norway Portugal Iceland Denmark and the Netherlands Belgium in 1949. Then new nations to join NATO in 1955 or Turkey, Greece, and West Germany

Warsaw Pact in 1955 the Soviet Union and its European allies began the Warsaw Pact the Warsaw Pact countries were closer to the Soviet Union. Warsaw Pact members included Soviet union Poland East Germany Czechoslovakia Hungary Romania Bulgaria and Albania.

Deterrence the United States and the Soviet Union and their arms race to build up huge arsenals of nuclear weapons took the form of deterrence. The policy held that huge arsenals of nuclear weapons on both sides prevented war. The belief was that neither side would launch a nuclear attack because both knew that the other side would be it would strike back with power.

Sputnik in 1957 the Soviets sent Sputnik one the first human made space satellite to orbit Earth. America was afraid. They felt the Soviet Union had a lead in building missiles. There was a missile gap between United States and the Soviet Union.

Berlin Wall Nikita Khrushchev was the leader of the Soviet Union in 1955. There were many refugees from East Germany that tried to leave by going into West Berlin. Berlin was economically doing well and East Germany was poverty-stricken so many people tired of the Communist repression and escaped through West Berlin. In August 1961 the East German government began to build a wall separating West Berlin from East Berlin. It became a massive barrier guarded by Barb wire floodlights and machine-gun towers minefields and vicious dog patrols the Berlin wall was a symbol of the division between the two superpowers United States and Russia.

Domino Theory in 1964 under Pres. Lyndon Johnson US troops were sent to Vietnam. Their purpose was to keep the communist regime of North Vietnam from invading control of South Vietnam. They believed it was a Domino theory if communist succeeded in South Vietnam the argument went other countries in Asia would also fall like dominoes to, as. The US had masses of equipment and firepower but they did not defeat the North Vietnamese. American troops started an antiwar movement and president Johnson did not run for reelection.

 Other facts

liberated the US and Great Britain believe that liberated nations of Eastern Europe should determine their own governments

Pres. Truman Truman doctrine, Marshall plan, Berlin airlift, founding of People's Republic of China, NATO founded, Korean War

Pres. Eisenhower Warsaw Pact, intercontinental ballistic missiles, Sputnik launched

Pres. Kennedy Berlin wall, Cuban missile crisis

Pres. Johnson Vietnam war

the Cuban missile crisis John F. Kennedy was the US president in 1959 pit L Castro overthrew Cuban dictator and set up the Soviet supported totalitarian government in Cuba. Cuba is very close to the Florida than mainland of the United States Kennedy feared that the Soviets were too close to the US

the Cuban missile crisis led to the Bay of Pigs Pres. Kennedy approved a CIA plan to have Cuban fighters invade Cuba at the Bay of Pigs on the beach it was a revolt against Cuba's Pres. Castro the invasion was a disaster Sunday, April 16, 1961 in three days they began surrendering hundred and 14 died and the rest were captured by Castro after the Bay of Pigs Russian president Khrushchev began to place nuclear missiles in Cuba he said he did this because United States had nuclear weapons in Turkey.

Cuban missile crisis in October 1962 Pres. Kennedy found out that Soviet ships carrying missiles were headed to Cuba and he decided to blockade Cuba to prevent the fleets from reaching Cuba with their missiles the Russians agreed to turn back the boots and remove the Soviet missiles from Cuba only if Kennedy pledged not to invade Cuba and Kennedy agreed. The US and Russia came so close to nuclear war that communication was set up between Moscow and Washington DC in 1963 so they could communicate quickly and times of crisis

Vietnam in 1964 under US Pres. Lyndon Johnson US troops are sent to Vietnam because North Vietnam was trying to invade South Vietnam. North Vietnam was backed by the Communists in Russia. South Vietnam was backed by the United States. North Vietnam one and people back in the United States started openly say that going to war was a bad idea. President Johnson did not run for reelection and Pres. Nixon in 1973 reached an agreement with North Vietnam that allow the US to withdraw its forces.



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