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Chemical bonds hold molecules together and create temporary connections that are essential to life. Common types of chemical bonds include covalent, ionic, and hydrogen bonds. Atoms tend to arrange themselves in the most stable pattern possible which means that they have a tendency to complete or fill their outermost electron orbits. The force that holds atoms together as molecules are referred to as a chemical bond.
Ionic bonding involves a transfer of an electron where one atom gains electrons and another Atom loses an electron. Because opposite charges attract the atom bonds together to form a molecule.
Covalent bonds are the most common bond in organic molecules. Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between two atoms. The pair of shared electrons form a new orbit that extends around the nuclei of both atoms producing a molecule.
A polar bond is when two atoms are connected by a covalent bond that exert different attractions for the electrons in the bond producing an unevenly distributed charge. The result is known as a polar bond because one end of the molecule is slightly negative and the other end is slightly positively charged.
Hydrogen bonds are polarized with two adjacent water molecules that can form a linkage known as a hydrogen bond where the hydrogen atom of one water molecule is electrostatically attracted to the oxygen atom of an adjacent water molecule. Hydrogen bonds are important in life processes because they can define the shape of DNA molecules.
Atoms are the basis for everything in the universe because all matter is composed of atoms. Solids are made up of densely packed atoms and gases have atoms that are more spread out. There are three basic parts of an atom: electrons, protons and neutrons. Electrons are the smallest of the three particles that make up atoms. Electrons are found in the shells, or orbitals, that surround the nucleus of an atom. Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus. They group together in the center of the atom. Each unique element has an atomic number equal to the number of protons it contains. Atoms can join together to form molecules which in turn form most of the objects around you. Different elements like oxygen and carbon contain different kinds of atoms. The atomic mass number is equal to the number of protons plus neutrons together.
Chemical Bonding Games